A certain American businessman had means, good sense, and excessive character. For years he had floundered from one sanitarium to a different. He had consulted the perfect recognized American psychiatrists. Then he had gone to Europe, putting himself in the care of a celebrated physician (the psychiatrist, Dr. Jung) who prescribed for him. Though expertise had made him skeptical, he finished his remedy with uncommon confidence. His physical and mental situation have been unusually good. Above all he believed he had acquired such a profound information of the inside workings of his thoughts and its hidden springs that relapse was unthinkable. However, he was drunk in a short while…
(Alcoholics Anonymous, p. 26)
The “sure American businessman” was Rowland Hazard. These occasions, thought at one time to have occurred in 1930, or 1931, at the moment are believed to have taken place in 1926. This story is meant to reveal the entire inefficacy of “human energy”, together with the rising tide of psychiatry, and psychoanalysis, relatively new, however extremely respected disciplines, at that time. In fact, faith was failing at about an equal price in attempts to rehabilitate drawback drinkers. The rise of AA was to prove, as had earlier teams like the Washingtonians, the Jacoby Membership, and others, that drunks will take heed to others drunks and that “identification” is among the most crucial tools in addressing the alcohol drawback.
Dr. Bob Smith confirms this concept in his description of his initial assembly with Bill Wilson on Mom’s Day, 1935;
He gave me details about the subject of alcoholism which was undoubtedly useful. Of much more importance was the truth that he was the first dwelling human with whom I had ever talked, who knew what he was talking about in regard to alcoholism from actual expertise. In other words, he talked my language. He knew all of the answers, and positively not as a result of he had picked them up in his reading. (BB, p. 180)
In fact, earlier than all of this, got here Rowland Hazard.
The Hazards of Rhode Island
Members of the Hazard household have been among the many first settlers of the State of Rhode Island. Descendants have been recognized for army achievement, enterprise success, philanthropy, and broad social activism spanning such causes as abolition of slavery, remedy of the insane and alcoholics, family planning, and revolutionary worker packages.
The household fortune derived largely from its textile manufacturing enterprise at Peace Dale, Rhode Island, mining, railroad, and chemical interests, together with the Solvay Process Firm. (Wikipedia)
Succeeding generations of Hazards built and occupied the finest houses and estates in Rhode Island.
“X” Marks the Spot
Household patriarch, Thomas Hazard (1610 – circa 1680) emigrated from Britain within the mid 1630s. The young ship’s carpenter came first to Boston, then Portsmouth, on Rhode Island. In 1639, he turned certainly one of 9 founding settlers of Newport on Aquineck Island, in the colony of Rhode Island. The whole 9 have been followers of their religious chief, the Baptist, Anne Hutchinson.
Property acquired very inexpensively from the natives was divided among the many founders. Hazard made his beginnings in America as a plantation owner and a city administrator. The progenitor of what was to turn into a family of “eminence”, signed his identify with a mark. Succeeding generations would have out there to them the easiest in instructional alternatives, and two of Thomas Hazard’s nice grandsons rose to the position of Deputy Governor of Rhode Island, George from 1734-38, and his brother Robert from 1750-51. A third Hazard rose to the identical heights within the 1830’s.
Generations of Hazards owned and operated many companies. Much of the household fortune was made in textile manufacturing. The Peace Dale Manufacturing Co., which was started in 1802 and was in family possession for over 100 years, was the principal supplier of blankets to the Union Military in the Civil Struggle. Rowland’s grandfather, also a Rowland “had nice respect for the dignity of his staff… (and) launched the primary employee profit-sharing in America… He shortened the work week, constructed respectable housing, and started a faculty”. (Rowland, The Messenger, Silkworth.internet)
He was the very antithesis of the ‘”robber barons” ruthlessly working other corporations in the publish Civil Conflict period.
“Rowland’s father, Rowland Gibson H., was superintendent of the Congregational Sabbath Faculty for twenty-five years… Perception in God was an ingrained worth in Rowland’s life. His mother’s father was a man of the material.” (Rowland, The Messenger).
Taft, Yale, a Wife and a Struggle
Rowland Hazard III was the tenth era of Hazards in Rhode Island. He added the numerical suffix “III” to differentiate himself from a succession of “Rowlands” courting back to the center of the Eighteenth Century. Born on October 29, 1881, the eldest of 5 youngsters, Rowland was thus about two years youthful than Dr. Bob Smith. Born “into privilege”, the young Hazard was despatched to the elite Taft Faculty in Connecticut, after which broke a family custom of attending Brown College by choosing as an alternative the alma mater of his maternal grandfather, Yale. Among his classmates, he was referred to as “Ike”, “Rowley”, or “Roy”, his nickname inside the family.
We do not know if Rowland turned a champion drinker at Yale, as did Bob Smith at Dartmouth, however he graduated in 1903, and was put to work within the household business. By 1906, he was Secretary/Treasurer of one of the family’s considerations, advancement alternatives being available to all named “Hazard.” He spent some time in Chicago, and it was there that he met Helen Hamilton Campbell, a graduate of Briar Cliff and the daughter of a banker. They have been married in 1910. The couple divorced in 1929, however remarried in 1931.
From 1914-16, Rowland served within the Rhode Island State Senate. As America’s entry to the Great Conflict grew imminent, Rowland surrendered a civilian supply place to turn out to be a Captain within the Army’s Chemical Warfare Service. By this time, the Hazards had substantial pursuits in chemical manufacturing.
The Code of Silence
Whatever consuming was being finished up till this point led to no embarrassing firings or materials drawback. The household would have gone to great lengths to attenuate any kind of public scrutiny of what at the time was thought-about to be a “ethical failing”. Maybe “Roy” was seen as wild, however alcoholism wouldn’t have been seen as one thing that rears its head in “the most effective households”. “There’s company denial.” (Rowland, The Messenger) Nonetheless, there’s some powerful evidence that his affliction was recognized inside the household.
In 1918, Rowland Gibson Hazard, Rowland III’s father, died. At that time, Rowland III held various positions inside the family’s network of corporations. This was an period the place the fitting of primogeniture was ubiquitously honored, but the thirty-seven yr previous eldest son was bypassed because the reins of power have been entrusted to his twenty-six yr previous brother, Thomas, only three years out of school.
Rowland was given a comfort prize, the presidency of one of the lesser corporations, Solway Securities. A number of years later, he moved outdoors the family circle to Lee Higginson & Co., a New York investment banker. His years with them have been 1920-27. As trendy analysis has the trip to Switzerland as occurring in 1926, his time at Higginson would have been a time a critical bingeing and interruptions for remedy (or detoxes) at numerous sanitariums. His employment was doubtless beyond jeopardy due to his entry to investment by the numerous Hazard enterprises.
Rowland The Messenger
The inimitable Ernest Kurtz enumerates
the 4 “founding moments” within the history of Alcoholics Nameless:
- Dr. Carl Jung’s 1931 dialog with Rowland H. (now believed to have taken place in 1926);
- Ebby T.’s late November 1934 visit with Invoice Wilson;
- Wilson’s “religious expertise” and discovery of William James in Cities Hospital in mid-December 1934;
- and the interplay between Wilson and Dr. Bob Smith by way of Might and June 1935… (Not-God, Ernest Kurtz, p. 33)
Rowland was present at, and involved in, the first of these, and instrumental in the second.
Geographical Tourism “Curism”
“Officially”, Rowland Hazard resigned his position with Lee Higginson & Co. to go on safari in Africa, an excursion that had develop into widespread among the very wealthy. His spouse might have been trying to get him away from his consuming buddies and environments. “Formally”, whereas in Africa, Rowland contracted some type of tropical illness. Whether true or not, the story offered a really useful rationalization for his subsequent growing need for hospitalization, and his disappearance from the world of Wall Road.
Hazard’s activities through the period of 1927-35 have been described as “obscure and sketchy, a time of ‘well being issues’ and personal ventures”. (The First Links in the Chain, Barefoot World) In 1929, he bought a New Mexico ranch. Ever entrepreneurial, “upon discovery of high grade clay on the ranch, he organized in 1931-32 the La Luz Clay Products to supply flooring and roof tile”. (First Links)
In 1932, he took up residence in Shaftsbury, Vermont, about fifteen miles south of Manchester. From 1932-36, his time was divided between Vermont and New Mexico. It was about this time that Hazard took up with the Oxford Group, and was capable of get sober, a sobriety he was capable of keep, for probably the most half, for the rest of his life. There are some tales of some “slipping”, and he might not have died sober as he turned terribly distraught over the loss of two of his four youngsters in World Warfare II.
The story of Rowland’s visit to Switzerland to hunt assist from the top of human energy, Dr. Jung, is far ballyhooed. “He was treated by Dr. Jung for a few yr, but when he left Jung, he quickly obtained drunk. He returned to Jung for additional remedy, however he was advised it will be ineffective. In Jung’s opinion, the one factor that would now assist free Rowland from his habit was a ‘religious awakening.’” (Cross It On, p. 114) Much of that is doubtless true, no less than, in a basic means.
The error relating to the timing of the go to to Jung might have been inadvertent, but the timing of 1931 “works higher”, as he would then quickly after get well by way of “supernatural power” by way of the Oxford Group. Relatively current analysis by historians into data and letters of Jung, Hazard, and Hazard household companies provide vital contradiction of AA’s official version of the story.
“The very fact is that there was at the very least a substantial exaggeration of the size and depth of Rowland Hazard’s contact with Carl Jung in Switzerland. A part of the Hazard-Jung story, as recounted in later AA sources, was clearly more legend than historic reality.” (The Street to Fellowship, Richard Dubiel, (2004) p. 71) The remedy periods with Jung have been nothing approaching a yr.
In fact, the Bill Wilson of “no actual infidelity” fame, has been acknowledged to have expertise in the crafting of tales. “Like his father before him, Invoice W. was a spellbinding storyteller; and, as Robertson observes, he had ‘a lifelong penchant for embroidering the details whereas accurately summarizing the gist of an event.’ Thus his factual liberties could also be considered poetic license.” (Bill W. and Mr. Wilson, Matthew J. Raphael, p. 12)
(“Robertson” above refers to Pulitzer Prize profitable, New York Occasions journalist and writer of Getting Higher, Inside Alcoholics Anonymous, Nan Robertson. The quote is from p. 78)
There’s another omission from AA’s official version of Rowland’s salvation at the hands of the Christian group, subsequent to the entire inefficacy of “human power” being proven by the failure of the good psychiatrist to impact a remedy. (This tale is usually additional enhanced by referring to Jung as “the world’s foremost professional on alcoholism!” Certainly the previous bearded adulterer would spin in his grave, should he hear that one.) Within the early 1930s, Rowland Hazard was attending Oxford Group gatherings AND being treated regularly by the highly effective lay therapist, Courtenay Baylor. The periods with Baylor, a recovered alcoholic himself, might properly have made a big contribution to Hazard gaining sobriety. In fact, this “human power” increase would muddle an in any other case very clear, black and white message.
Rowland to Ebby
AA’s second nice “founding moment”, Ebby’s message to Bill, would not have been potential had not the message been handed to Ebby. In July of 1934, he was visited by some Oxford Groupers. Cebra Graves and Shep Cornell “had once completed appreciable consuming with Ebby. However this time, they ‘advised me that that they had run into the Oxford Group and had gotten some pretty smart factor out of it based mostly on the life of Christ…’ Ebby stated”. (Cross It On, p. 113)
Ebby was much more wooed by his third customer, Rowland. “I used to be very a lot impressed by his consuming career, which consisted of prolonged sprees, the place he traveled everywhere in the nation. And I was also very impressed by the truth that he was a superb guy. The first day he got here to see me, he helped me clean up the place. Issues have been a multitude, and he helped me straighten it up, and he caught by me from starting to finish.” (Move It On, p. 113) Rowland continued working to help Ebby, however Ebby returned to the bottle after a period of sobriety, and ran afoul of the regulation.
Dealing with some dire penalties at courtroom, “Rowland H. interceded and informed the decide that he, Rowland can be answerable for Ebby… For some time he was a guest at Rowland’s house… after which came to New York City, the place he stayed with Shep for a while after which went to reside with one of the ‘brotherhood’ who ran Calvary Episcopal Mission on 23rd Road. It was whereas he was staying there and working with the Oxford Group that he heard of Bill’s determined state of affairs”. (Move It On, p. 115) It hadn’t harm that the presiding magistrate was Cebra Graves’ father.
Ebby to Bill
As with AA, within the Oxford Group, you stored it by giving it away, and Ebby was despatched to deliver the message to Invoice who started a historical chain of 1 alcoholic speaking to a different. It was the alcoholic Oxforders who helped Ebby, and his message to Bill had weight as a result of Invoice knew Ebby to be a drinker “of his sort”. Dr. Bob’s two and a half yr publicity to the spiritual remedy produced no cessation of consuming. The impact of Invoice’s first conversation with him was profound.
Identification. In the beginning.
“But the ex-problem drinker who has found this answer, who is properly armed with information about himself, can usually win the whole confidence of one other alcoholic in a couple of hours. Till such an understanding is reached, little or nothing could be completed.” (Huge E-book, p. 18).
In 1935, Rowland Hazard returned to Wall Road as a basic companion in Tailer (sic) and Robinson, a brokerage agency, and later moved to Lockwood Engineers Inc. There were two years as an unbiased advisor, “typically a resume rationalization of durations of unemployment” (First Links), earlier than turning into a VP at Bristol Manufacturing, in 1941. It isn’t recognized if these modifications of employment had anything to do with consuming, or have been merely indicative of a rich guy pursuing what he found fascinating.
World Struggle II introduced tragedy for Rowland and Helen Hazard as they lost one son in 1941, and a second in 1945. The dying of the second son was devastating, and provoked a interval of isolation.
“While at his office desk on Thursday, December 20, 1945, Rowland all of the sudden died of a coronary occlusion.” (First Links) On the time of Hazard’s demise, at sixty-four, he and Helen have been dwelling on Park Avenue. Though eight years younger, Helen was gone less than a yr later.
Rowland Hazard by no means joined AA, though he played a task in its coming into existence. Maybe he had no compelling purpose to, as he was (barring a rumored relapse in 1936) a number of years sober on the time the Huge Ebook was revealed. He continued on with the Oxford Group by way of the troublesome occasions in the late 30s, with the founder’s problems and the identify change to Moral Rearmament. Lois Wilson stated he was an ardent Oxford Grouper till his dying, and a vestryman in New York Metropolis’s Calvary Episcopal Church.
It’s unlikely that he would have been an enormous fan of the AA Agnostica web site.
Concerning the Writer
Bob Okay. lives within the Metropolitan Toronto area, and has been a sober member of Alcoholics Anonymous since 1991, and an out-of-the-closet atheist for that whole time. He has been a daily contributor to the AA Agnostica website for almost 5 years, and in January, 2015, revealed Key Players in AA Historical past In 2013, he co-founded the Whitby Freethinkers meeting.